Using the Keyring Component or Keyring Plugin

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The keyring_vault plugin can store the encryption keys inside the HashiCorp Vault.

Galera can use either of the following plugins:

  • keyring_file stores the keyring data locally
  • keyring_vault provides an interface for the database with a HashiCorp Vault server to store key and secure encryption keys.


Do not use the keyring_file plugin for regulatory compliance.

To install the plugin, follow the installing and uninstalling plugins instructions.

Loading the Keyring Plugin

Load the plugin at server startup with the -early-plugin-load option to enable keyrings.


Only enable one keyring plugin at a time. Enabling multiple keyring plugins is not supported and may result in data loss.

We recommend that you load the plugin in the configuration file to facilitate recovery for encrypted tables. Also, the redo log encryption and the undo log encryption cannot be used without --early-plugin-load. The normal plugin load happens too late in startup.


The keyring_vault extension, .so and the file location for the vault configuration should be changed to match your operating system’s extension and the file location in your operating system.

To use the keyring_vault, you can add this option to your configuration file:

You can also run the following command, which loads the keyring_file plugin:

$ mysqld --early-plugin-load=""


If a server starts with different plugins loaded early, the --early-plugin-load option should contain the plugin names in a double-quoted list with each plugin name separated by a semicolon. The use of double quotes ensures the semicolons do not create issues when the list is executed in a script.

Apart from installing the plugin you also must set the keyring_vault_config variable to point to the keyring_vault configuration file.

The keyring_vault_config file has the following information:

  • vault_url - the Vault server address
  • secret_mount_point - the mount point name where keyring_vault stores the keys.
  • secret_mount_point_version - the KV Secrets Engine version (kv or kv-v2) used.
  • token - a token generated by the Vault server.
  • vault_ca [optional] - if the machine does not trust the Vault’s CA certificate, this variable points to the CA certificate used to sign the Vault’s certificates.

This is an example of a configuration file:

vault_url =
secret_mount_point = secret
secret_mount_point_version = AUTO
token = 58a20c08-8001-fd5f-5192-7498a48eaf20
vault_ca = /data/keyring_vault_confs/vault_ca.crt


Each secret_mount_point must be used by only one server. If multiple servers use the same secret_mount_point, the behavior is unpredictable.

The first time a key is fetched from a keyring, the keyring_vault communicates with the Vault server to retrieve the key type and data.


The secret_mount_point_version can be either 1, 2, AUTO, or the secret_mount_point_version parameter is not listed in the configuration file.

Value Description
1 Works with KV Secrets Engine - Version 1 (kv). When forming key operation URLs, the secret_mount_point is always used without any transformations. For example, to return a key named skey, the URL is /v1//skey.

Works with KV Secrets Engine - Version 2 (kv) The initialization logic splits the secret_mount_point parameter into two parts:

  • The mount_point_path - the mount path under which the Vault Server secret was created
  • The directory_path - a virtual directory suffix that can be used to create virtual namespaces with the same real mount point

For example, both the mount_point_path and the directory_path are needed to form key access URLs: /v1/<mount_point_path/data//skey.

AUTO An autodetection mechanism probes and determines if the secrets engine version is kv or kv-v2 and based on the outcome will either use the secret_mount_point as is, or split the secret_mount_point into two parts.
Not listed If the secret_mount_point_version is not listed in the configuration file, the behavior is the same as with AUTO.

If you set the secret_mount_point_version to 2, but the path pointed by secret_mount_point is based on KV Secrets Engine - Version 1 (kv), an error is reported and the plugin fails to initialize.

If you set the secret_mount_point_version to 1 but the path pointed by secret_mount_point is based on KV Secrets Engine - Version 2 (kv-v2), the plugin initialization succeeds but any MySQL keyring-related operations fail.

Upgrading from 8.0.22-13 or earlier to 8.0.23-14 or later

The keyring_vault plugin configuration files created before Galera Cluster for MySQL 8.0.23-14 work only with KV Secrets Engine - Version 1 (kv) and do not have the secret_mount_point_version parameter. After the upgrade to 8.0.23-14 or later, the secret_mount_point_version is implicitly considered AUTO and the information is probed and the secrets engine version is determined to 1.

Upgrading from Vault Secrets Engine Version 1 to Version 2

You can upgrade from the Vault Secrets Engine Version 1 to Version 2. Use either of the following methods:

  • Set the secret_mount_point_version to AUTO or the variable is not set in the keyring_vault plugin configuration files in all Galera servers. The AUTO value ensures the autodetection mechanism is invoked during the plugin initialization.
  • Set the secret_mount_point_version to 2 to ensure that plugins do not initialize unless the kv to kv-v2 upgrade completes.


The keyring_vault plugin that works with kv-v2 secret engines does not use the built-in key versioning capabilities. The keyring key versions are encoded into key names.

This feature enables using secondary groups in the mapping part of the authentication string, like “mysql, developers=joe, dba=mark”. Previously, only primary groups could have been specified there. If user is a member of both developers and dba, the PAM plugin will map it to joe, as developers matches first.

KV Secret Engine considerations for upgrading from 5.7 to 8.0

When you upgrade from Galera Cluster for MySQL 5.7.32 or older, you can only use KV Secrets Engine 1 (kv). You can upgrade to any version of Percona Server for MySQL 8.0. Both the old keyring_vault plugin and new keyring_vault plugin work correctly with the existing Vault Server data under the existing keyring_vault plugin configuration file.

If you upgrade from Galera Cluster for MySQL 5.7.33 or newer, you have the following options:

  • If you are using KV Secrets Engine 1 (kv) you can upgrade with any version of Galera Cluster for MySQL 8.0.
  • If you are using KV Secrets Engine 2 (kv-v2) you can upgrade with Galera Cluster for MySQL 8.0.23 or newer. Galera Cluster for MySQL is the first version of the 8.0 series which has the keyring_vault plugin that supports kv-v2.

A user-created key deletion is only possible with the use of the keyring_udf plugin and deletes the key from the in-memory hash map and the Vault server. You cannot delete system keys, such as the master key.

This plugin supports the SQL interface for keyring key management described in the General-Purpose Keyring Key-Management Functions manual.

The plugin library contains keyring user-defined functions which allow access to the internal keyring service functions. To enable the functions, you must enable the keyring_udf plugin:

$ mysqld INSTALL PLUGIN keyring_udf SONAME '';


The keyring_udf plugin must be installed. Using the user-defined functions without the keyring_udf plugin generates an error.

You must also create keyring encryption user-defined functions.

Using the keyring_file component

See keyring component installation for information on installing the component.


Do not use the keyring_file component for regulatory compliance.

System Variables


This variable defines the location of the keyring_vault_plugin configuration file.

Command Line –keyring-vault-config
Scope Global
Dynamic Yes
Data Type Text


Set the duration in seconds for the Vault server connection timeout. The default value is 15. The allowed range is from 0 to 86400. The timeout can be also disabled to wait an infinite amount of time by setting this variable to 0.

Command Line –keyring_vault_timeout
Scope Global
Dynamic Yes
Data Type Numeric
Default 15